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Dairy GHG

Farm-scale Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Strategies in Dairy Livestock-Cropping-Systems project was funded by the Agricultural Greenhouse Gases Program (AGGP) program by the Agriculture Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). This program was established as Canadian Government’s commitment to the Global Research Alliance (GRA) on agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation worldwide and intended to increase farmer-adoption of agricultural GHG mitigation technologies, beneficial management practices (BMPs), and processes by enhanced understanding and accessibility. Additional funding was provided by the Dairy Farmers of Canada (DFO)and supporting organizations included Dairy Farmers of Ontario (DFO)Alberta MilkOntario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (OMAFRA)Alberta Agriculture and Forestry (AAF)Ontario Soil and Crop Improvement Association (OSCIA)Ontario Federation of Agriculture (OFA) and Atlantic Dairy and Forage Institute (ADFI). The main goal of this project was to develop and validate best management practices (BMPs) for the livestock and cropping systems priority areas, with focus on the dairy sector, using an integrated approach. We conducted a coordinated study that targeted three stages of the dairy-cropping system complex: FeedingManure Management, and Cropping Systems Management(for both perennial and annual feed crops). The specific objectives were:

  • Integrate Canadian research efforts towards increased understanding of greenhouse gas emissions associated with dairy production, manure management, and associated cropping systems providing a scientific basis
  • Develop and scientifically validate BMPs for the livestock and cropping systems priority areas, with focus on the dairy sector.
  • Support emission reductions through adoption of BMPs.


Journal Articles

Ngwa*, M., R. Gordon, A. VanderZaag, K. Dunfield, A. Sissoko, C. Wagner-Riddle. The Extent of Manure Removal from Storages and its Impact on Gaseous Emissions. J. Env. Quality (accepted)

Jayasundara*, S., J. A. D. R. N. Appuhamy*, E. Kebreab, and C. Wagner-Riddle. 2016. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Canadian dairy farms and mitigation options: An updated review. Can. J. Animal Science (Published on the web 3 May 2016, 10.1139/CJAS-2015-0111)

Abalos*, D., S. Brown*, A. Vanderzaag, R. Gordon, K. Dunfield, and C.Wagner-Riddle.  2015.  Micrometeorological measurements over 3 years reveal differences in N2O emissions between annual and perennial crops. Global Change Biol. 22: 1244–1255. doi: 10.1111/gcb.13137

Kaufman*, J., M. Linington, V.R. Osborne, C. Wagner-Riddle, and T.C. Wright. 2015. Field study of air ammonia concentrations in Ontario dairy calf housing microenvironments. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 95: 539-542.

Snider*, D., K. Thompson*, C. Wagner-Riddle, J. Spoelstra, and K. Dunfield. 2015.  Molecular techniques and stable isotope ratios at natural abundance give complementary inferences about N2O production pathways in an agricultural soil following a rainfall event. Soil Biol. Biochem. 88: 197-213.

Hawkins*, J., A.Weersink, C.Wagner-Riddle, and G. Fox. 2015. Optimizing ration formulation as a strategy for greenhouse gas mitigation in intensive dairy production systems. Agricultural Systems 137: 1–11.

Ngwabie*, N. M., A. Vanderzaag, S. Jayasundara, and C. Wagner-Riddle.  2014. Measurements of emission factors from a naturally ventilated commercial barn for dairy cows in a cold climate. Biosystems Engineering  127: 103-114.

Appuhamy*, J., J. France, D.Casper, C. Wagner-Riddle, and E. Kebreab. 2014a. Quantifying body water kinetics and fecal and urinary water output from lactating Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Science 97 (10): 6177-6195.

Wood*, J. D., A. C. VanderZaag, C. Wagner-Riddle, E. Smith and R.J. Gordon. 2014. Gas emissions from liquid dairy manure: complete vs. partial storage emptying. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 99:95–105.

Jayasundara*, S., and C. Wagner-Riddle. 2014. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of Ontario milk production in 2011 compared with 1991. Can. J. Animal Sci. 94: 155-173.

Appuhamy*, J., L. E. Moraes, C. Wagner-Riddle, D. P. Casper, J. France, and E. Kebreab. 2014b. Development of mathematical models to predict volume and nutrient composition of fresh manure from lactating Holstein cows. Animal Production Science 54: 1927-1938.

Appuhamy*, J. A. D., A.B. Strathe, S. Jayasundara*, C.Wagner-Riddle, J. Dijkstra, J. France, and E. Kebreab.  2013. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis. J. of Dairy Sci. 96: 5161-5173.

Wood*, J.D., R. J. Gordon and C. Wagner-Riddle. 2013. Biases in discrete CH4 and N2O sampling protocols associated with temporal variation of gas fluxes from manure storage systems. Agric. For. Meteorology 171–172:295-305.

Wood*, J.D., R.J. Gordon, C. Wagner-Riddle, K.E. Dunfield and A. Madani. 2012. Relationships between dairy slurry total solids, gas emissions, and surface crusts. J. Env. Qual. 41:694-704.


Wood, J. 2013. Mitigating Gas Emissions from Liquid Manure Storage Systems: Management Practices, Measurements and Modeling. PhD Thesis, April 2013.

Mali, D.J. 2013.Measurement of Ammonia, Methane and Particulate Matter Emissions from a Dairy Barn. MASc. Thesis, August 2013.

Hawkings, J. 2014.  Cost Effective Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in the Ontario Dairy Sector. MSc. Thesis, September  2014.

Trudell, A. 2015. Effects of Corn Dried Distillers’ Grains with Solubles on Methane, Ammonia and Particulate Matter Emissions from a Dairy Cattle Facility. MASc. Thesis, January 2015.

Evans, L. 2015. Impact of Management Practices on Whole Farm Ammonia Emissions on Ontario Dairy Farms. MSc. Thesis, December 2015.

Schwager, E. 2015. Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Nitrate Leaching from Spring- and Fall-Applied Digestate, Raw Dairy Manure and Urea. MSc. Thesis, April 2015.

Thompson, K. 2016. Abundance, Activity and Community Structure of Nitrifier and Denitrifier Communities in AgroEcosystems. PhD. Thesis, January 2016.

Singh, J. 2016. The Effect of Including Legumes in Dairy Crop Rotations on Nitrous Oxide Emissions. MSc. Thesis, April 2016.

Reports and Factsheets

Final Report. 2016. Final Performance Report for the Period from April 1, 2011 to March 31, 2016

Viresco Solutions. 2015. Summary Report – Dairy AGGP Science Coordination and Implementation Workshop. April 16 to 17, 2015, Ottawa, ON

Nutritional Changes that Reduce Greenhouse Gases

Beneficial Manure Management Practices to Mitigate Greenhouse Gases

Beneficial Crop Management Practices to Mitigate Greenhouse Gases

University of Guelph researches ‘green’ practices for dairies by J Kaufman, Progressive Dairyman Canada, 21 March 2013.

University of Guelph studying dairy greenhouse gases by J Kaufman, Eastern Ontario – June is Dairy Month Supplement, Wed Jun 12, 2013. pg 4

Mitigation strategies by C Wagner-Riddle, J Kaufman and T Wright, Milk Producer, Sept 2013. Pg 42-43

Manure storage by SPARK

Managing manure for fewer emissions by SPARK

Reducing emissions in dairy barnsby SPARK